Avignon Papacy

Home Up

 

Avignon Papacy

For a complete List of the Popes see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_popes#List_of_popes

http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avignon_Papacy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license", and provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

The Avignon Papacy refers to a period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church from 1309 to 1378 when the seat of the Pope was moved from Rome to Avignon. The period has been called the "Babylonian Captivity" (or "Babylonish Captivity") of the Popes (or the Church), particularly by Martin Luther. This nick-name is polemical, in that it refers to the claim by critics that the fabulous prosperity of the church at this time was accompanied by a profound compromise of the Papacy's spiritual integrity, especially in the alleged subordination of the powers of the Church to the ambitions of the Frankish emperor. Coincidentally, the "captivity" of the popes at Avignon lasted around the same duration as the exile of the Jews in Babylon, making the analogy all the more convenient and rhetorically potent.

Seven popes resided in Avignon:
bulletPope Clement V - 1305-1314
bulletPope John XXII - 1316-1334
bulletPope Benedict XII - 1334-1342
bulletPope Clement VI - 1342-1352
bulletPope Innocent VI - 1352-1362
bulletPope Urban V - 1362-1370
bulletPope Gregory XI - 1370-1378

In 1378 the seat was moved back to Rome, while a disputing party continued to honor the bishop in Avignon as the head of the church. From 1378 to 1414 was a time of difficulty which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Papal Schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called the Second Great Schism by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic Church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of Pope. The Council of Constance, which convened in 1414, finally resolved the controversy, dismantling the last vestiges of the Avignon Papacy and brought the Great Schism to an end in 1417.

 

External link

bulletCatholic Encyclopedia: Avignon

 

Great Schism
   http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Schism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license", and provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

The Great Schism resulted from the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome by Pope Gregory XI in 1378, ending the Avignon Papacy.  It lasted from 1378 until 1417 when the Council of Constance brought it to an end.

After Gregory XI died, the Romans rioted to ensure an Italian was elected; the cardinals, fearing the crowds, elected an Italian, Pope Urban VI in 1378; but in the same year the majority of them removed themselves to Fondi, and elected a rival Pope from there, Pope Clement VII. Later a council at Pisa was held in 1409 to try to solve the dispute, but it only resulted in the election of a third Pope, Pope Alexander V by the council, soon to be followed by Pope John XXIII.

Finally, the Council of Constance in 1417 deposed John XXIII and the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, received the resignation of the Roman Pope Gregory XII, and elected Pope Martin V, thereby ending the schism.

The alternate papal claimants have become known in history as antipopes.

 

Pope Boniface VIII

http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Boniface_VIII
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license", and provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

Boniface VIII was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. Boniface's given name was Benedict Cajetan, or Benedetto Gaetano. He was regarded as a man of great ability, and was elected in 1294 after Celestine V was persuaded to resign.

Boniface VIII meddled incessantly in foreign affairs, and put forward the strongest claims to temporal as well as spiritual supremacy. His bitterest quarrels were with the emperor Albert I of Habsburg, with the powerful family of the Colonnas, and with Philip the Fair of France, whom he excommunicated in 1303. He was about to lay all France under an interdict when he was seized at Agnani by a party of horsemen under Philippe de Nogaret, an agent of Philip and Sciarra Colonna. After three days' captivity he was released by the town's people, but the agitation he had undergone caused his death soon after, on October 11 1303.

In 1300 Boniface instituted the jubilees, which afterwards became such a source of profit and of scandal to the church.

Dante portrayed Boniface VIII as being in the Inferno in his Divine Comedy.

Pope Benedict XI

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license", and provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

 

Benedict XI, pope (1303-1304), succeeded the famous Boniface VII, but was unable to carry out his Ultramontane policy. He released Philip the Fair of France from the excommunication laid upon him by Boniface, and practically ignored the bull Unam Sanctum. The popes who immediately succeeded him were completely under the influence of the kings of France, and removed the Papal seat from Rome to Avignon, sometimes known as the Babylonian Captivity.

preceded by Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
succeeded by Pope Clement V (1305-1314)

Pope Clement V

.
   http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_V
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license", and provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

 

Clement V, pope (1305-1314), (Bertrand de Goth, archbishop of Bordeaux, France) is memorable in history for his suppression of the order of the Templars, and as the pope who removed the seat of the Roman see to Avignon.

He was elected in June 1305, after a year's interregnum occasioned by the disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly equally balanced in the conclave. According to Villani he had bound himself to subserviency towards the French monarch by a formal agreement previous to his elevation. Whether this was true or not, it is unquestionable that he conducted himself throughout his pontificate as the mere tool of that monarch. His first act was to create nine French cardinals.

The removal of the seat of the Papacy to Avignon (1308) might seem palliated by the factious and tumultuary condition of Rome at the period, but it proved the precursor of the long Babylonian captivity, in Petrarch's phrase, and marks the point from which the decay of the strictly Catholic conception of the Pope as universal bishop is to be dated.

The guilt or innocence of the Templars is one the most difficult of historical problems, the discussion of which belongs, however, to the history of that order. Clement may have acted conscientiously in his suppression of an order which had heretofore been regarded as a main bulwark of Christendom against the forces of Islam, but there can be little doubt that his principal motive was complaisance towards the king of France, or that the latter was mainly actuated by jealousy and cupidity.

Clement's pontificate was also disastrous for Italy. The Emperor Henry VII entered the country, established the Visconti in Milan, and was crowned by Clement's legates in Rome, but was unable to maintain himself there, and died suddenly, leaving a great part of Italy in a condition of complete anarchy. The dissensions of the Roman barons reached their height, and the Lateran palace was destroyed in a conflagration. Other remarkable incidents of Clement's reign are his sanguinary repression of the heresy of Fra Dolcino in Lombardy and his promulgation of the Clementine Constitutions in 1313. He died, leaving an inauspicious character for nepotism, avarice, and cunning, in April 1314. He was the first Pope who assumed the triple crown.