UNION COUNTY COLLEGE KENNETH C. MACKAY LIBRARY
UCC Libraries Citation Guide
prepared by Lisa Bruckman and Susan
Documenting Sources Using Turabian
A Few Basic Rules in Using the Turabian Style
Here are a few basic rules to guide you in citing the publications used for your
research paper. To create such a list you will have to have full citations prepared for
each source used. These citations should be prepared as you use each source so that you do
not have to retrace the steps followed in researching your paper.
The Bibliography (simply) lists the sources used in writing the
(research) paper." (Turabian 1996, 165). When using a bibliography, you will have to
document any quotes or ideas you use with either footnotes or endnotes.
credit anything you should document at the bottom of each page. (See
(Turabian 1996, 118, 254-255)).
Endnotes credit anything you should document at the end of your research paper.
(See (Turabian 1996, 13, 118, 277)).
The format of either of these is the same and both are represented when we discuss
Notes in the Turabian style. These are also described by "N" in the "Sample
" listed later in this booklet.
The Reference List is a list of works cited in the text of the
research paper using the parenthetical or author-date reference system.
The format of the Reference List is the same as for a Bibliography.
Parenthetical References in the Author-Date System. In the
parenthetical or author-date reference system . . . , citations in running
text consist of two basic elements - authors' names and dates of publication -
usually in parentheses (for example, Turabian 1996, 175)). The full
bibliographic details for these cited works are then given in the Reference
list (Turabian 1996, 175).
Placement of the Bibliography:
is the last part of the paper (except in those rare
instances where a paper carries an index, like in a book)." (Turabian 1996, 13)
Arrangement of the Bibliography:
Bibliographies are arranged with the authors names cited alphabetically:
"All works by the same author are arranged first by date, then alphabetically by
title." (Turabian 1996, 279) The Bibliography gives the works cited in full
bibliographic detail (author, title, volume, place of publication, publisher,
and year of publication)
Endnotes or footnotes and parenthetical references have four basic uses: (1) to give
the source for statements in your text "specific facts or opinions as well as
(2) to make cross-references;
(3) to provide a place for
(you think) worthwhile to include but that might interrupt the flow of
thought if introduced into the text;
" (4) to give credit for help or aid in
producing a portion of the paper (Turabian 1996, 118) If you fail to give credit to some
thought or passage you borrowed from the text of one of your sources, you are committing
plagiarism which is a serious and punishable error.
When citing the title of a published work, take the title from the title page not
from the cover or from a headline at the top of the page. (The title page of a book is the
page directly before the book begins. The title is given on the front and copyright
information on the back.) Do not use any unusual typographic characteristics, such as
special capitalization or the lowercasing of all letters.
"In giving titles of published works in notes or bibliography, the spelling of
the original should be retained but capitalization and punctuation may be altered to
conform to the style used in the paper
.In the humanities
, it is customary to
capitalize titles headline style(:)
.capitalize the first and last words and all
other words except
" (Turabian 1996, 65)
|Articles (a, an, the as in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East)|
||Prepositions (e.g. against, between, in, of, to as in Egypt: Land of
||Coordinating conjunctions (and , but, for, nor, or, so, yet as in "Tradition
and Major Projects of the Fourteenth Century")|
||The to in infinitives (as in How to Err)|
Italics and quotation marks for titles follow a general rule: "italicize the
titles of whole published works and
put the titles of parts of these
works in quotation marks
.Italicize the titles of books, pamphlets, bulletins,
periodicals (magazines, journals, newspapers), and long poems (such as Paradise Lost)
that are italicized
may be underlined if italics are not available on the computer
system or typewriter being used." (Turabian 1996, 68)
You should use quotation marks for the titles of works published within larger works.
Such titles include the names of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, chapters of
books, individual episodes of television and radio programs, and short musical
compositions (e.g. songs). Quotation marks should also be used for unpublished works, such
as lectures and speeches. If a publisher has marked a work, " it should be
treated as published; that is, the title should be italicized wherever it
appears." (Turabian 1996, 68)
Be sure to use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the
title ends in a question mark, an exclamation point, or a dash. Also include other
punctuation only if it is part of the title.
Sample Entries in the Turabian Style
B= Entry for a Bibliography
N=Entry for a Note
B and N designations are for informational purposes,
they are not part of the footnote or bibliographic entries.
do not copy B or N
Titles of books and names of magazines are either written in
italics or they are underlined. In the samples below, the italicized
method is used. But it would be equally appropriate to continue with
regular type and underline. [Dr. Damerow requests that you use the underline
Example using italics: North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Example using underline:
North, John. Stonehenge:
A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
New York: The Free Press, 1996.
It is also customary to indent the second line of a
bibliographical entry five spaces.
In a footnote or endnote, the first line starts with an
indent and then the number of the footnote is printed. Numbers
should be consecutive throughout the paper.
Example for footnote indentation:
Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric
Man and the Cosmos (New York: The Free Press, 1996), 54.
Bibliographic entries and footnotes are always single spaced;
BUT, you double space BETWEEN entries on the same page.
A book by a single author: (Turabian 1996, 187)
North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
New York: The Free Press, 1996.
1John North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric
Man and the Cosmos
(New York: The Free Press, 1996), 54.
An edited book: (Turabian 1996, 190)
Niiya, Brian, ed. Japanese American History: An A-to-Z
Reference from 1868 to Present.
New York: Facts on File, 1993..
1Brian Niiya, ed., Japanese American History: An A-to-Z
Reference from 1868 to Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993), 54.
A book with more than one author or editor: (Turabian 1996, 188-191)
Winter, Jay, and Blaine Baggett. The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th
New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996.
(New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996), 54.
1Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett, The Great War and the Shaping of
A book with no author: (Turabian 1996, 189)
Dictionary of American History. New York: Charles
Scribners Sons, 1976.
1Dictionary of American History (New York: Charles
Scribners Sons, 1976), 54-55.
A book with an Institution, Association or the Like as author:
(Turabian 1996, 190)
Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ Researcher:
January December, 1996.
Congressional Quarterly, Inc.,
1Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ Researcher:
January-December (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1996), 54.
An article in an encyclopedia or a well-known reference book:
"Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes
or parenthetical references the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition,
if not the first, must be specified." (Turabian 1996, 204)
For my annotated bibliographies, I specifically request that you cite one
encyclopedia and list it as a distinct category.
Unsigned article: (Turabian 1996, 204)
1New Encyclopedia Britannica, Micropaedia,15th
ed., s.v. "Santeria."
Signed article: (Turabian 1996, 204)
1Karl-Dietrich Gundermann, "Light" in New Encyclopedia
Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed.
An article in or the chapter of a book: (Turabian 1996, 196)
Bottero, Jean. "Akkadian Literature: An Overview." In Civilizations
of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack M. Sassson, 2293-2303. New York: Charles
Scribners Sons, 1995.
1Jean Bottero, "Akkadian Literature: An Overview," in Civilizations
of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack M. Sasson (New York: Charles Scribners Sons,
Edition other than the first: (Turabian 1996, 193)
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers,Theses, and
6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
1Kate L. Turabian. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice
Bennett (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 193
A journal or magazine article:
Because they are treated differently in the Turabian style, we must first
understand what is a journal and what is a magazine.
A journal is a periodical which generally contains articles of a professional or
scholarly nature and is dedicated to a specific subject matter.
A magazine is a periodical which contains information of a popular and general
nature, is usually varied in subject matter and its target audience is often the public or
a large segment of the public audience.
Article in a journal: (Turabian 1996, 202)
Fleming, Thomas. "George Washington, Spymaster." American
Heritage. Vol. 51 , No. 1 (February-March, 2000), 45-51.
1Thomas Fleming, "George Washington, Spymaster," American
Heritage. Vol. 51,
No. 1 (February-March, 2000), 45.
Article in a magazine: (Turabian 1996, 203)
Strobel, Warren P. "A Glimpse of Cyberwarfare: Governments Ready
Information-age Tricks to Use against their Adversaries." U.S. News and World
Report (13 March 2000), 32-33.
1Warren P. Strobel, "A Glimpse of Cyberwarfare: Governments
Ready Information-age Tricks to Use against their Adversaries," U.S. News and
World Report (13 March 2000), 32.
A newspaper article: (Turabian 1996; 144-146, 204-205)
"News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a
bibliography or reference list. If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a note or a
parenthetical reference in the text is sufficient
" (Turabian 1996, 204)
1 Bridgewater Courier News (New Jersey), 20 January
If you are citing an article from a Sunday edition, it is necessary to give the
"section number (or letter), page number, and edition letter (often in
uppercase)" (Turabian 1996, 144-145).
1Douglas Jehl, "As Oil Prices Explode, Whats Next?
Voters?," New York Times, 19 March 2000, sec. 4, p.1, 3.
"If the name of the city is the same as that of a better-known city, add the city
before the newspaper title and italicize or underline both. If the city is not widely
(or may be confused with a better known city),
give the state or
province in parentheses
." (Turabian 1996, 145)
(For an example, see the Bridgewater Courier News above.)
For foreign cities, give the name of the city in parentheses after the title of the
But Frankfurter Zeitung
For well-known newspapers, the city of publication need not be included.
Wall Street Journal
"An initial the in English language newspaper titles is omitted, but
its equivalent in a foreign language is retained
" (Turabian 1996, 145)
For example, New York Times but Le Monde (Paris).
Book Review in a Journal: (Turabian 1996, 205)
Ware, Susan. Review of To Do & To Be: Portraits of Four
Women Activists, 1893-1986, by Ann Schofield. Labor History 41 (February 2000):
1 Susan Ware, review of To Do & To Be: Portraits
of Four Women Activists, 1896-1986, by Ann Schofield, Labor History 41
(February 2000): 99-100.
Videorecordings: (Turabian 1996, 211)
Sutherland, David , prod., and Nancy Sutherland, co-prod. The American
Experience: George Washington-The Man Who Wouldnt Be King. 60 min. PBS Video,
1.The American Experience: George Washington-The Man Who
Wouldnt Be King,
prod. by David Sutherland and co-prod. by Nancy Sutherland, 60
min., PBS Video, 1992, videocassette.
An Article on CD-ROM: (Turabian 1996, 210)
(CD-ROM) "are in relatively fixed form, although they may be updated periodically;
(online sources) may be continually revised, making the precise date of access
.(as well as any) identifying numbers or pathway needed for
access to the material". (Turabian 1996, 158).
Sellman, James Clyde. "Abolitionism in the United States." Africana
Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 1993-1999.
1James Clyde Sellman, "Abolitionism in the United States," Africana
Encarta [CD-ROM] (Microsoft, 1993-1999).
Electronic Documents: (Turabian 1996; 158-159, 210)
An Internet Posting: (Turabian 1996, 210)
Greenhalgh, Michael. The Palace of
Diocletian at Split: A Unique Structure from the Later Roman Empire.
(15 Sept 1999).
Online. Available from http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Experimental/split/split1.html
[accessed 4 May 2000]
1 Michael Greenhalgh, The Palace of
Diocletian At Split: A Unique Structure from the Later Roman Empire (15 Sept 1999)
available from http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Experimental/split/split1.html
4 May 2000]
An Article from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996, 210)
Mosse, George L. "Shell-shock as a Social Disease." Journal of
Contemporary History 35, no.1 (January 2000): 101-108. Database online. Available from
Periodical Abtracts, GJCH ISBN: 0022-0094.
1 George L. Mosse, "Shell-shock as a Social Disease," Journal
of Contemporary History 35, no.1 (January 2000): 101-108 (database online); available
from Periodical Abstracts, GJCH ISBN: 0022-0094.
A Government Document from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996; 210, 214-238)
U.S. Congress. House. Beaches Environmental Awareness, Cleanup, and Health Act of
1999 (Engrossed in House). 106th Cong., 1st sess., H.R.999. EH. (22
April 1999.) Online. Available from THOMAS: Legislative Information on the Internet:
Legislation, Major Legislation, 106th:Marine Resources [accessed 3 May 2000].
1U.S. Congress, House; Beaches Environmental
Awareness, Cleanup, and
Health Act of 1999 (Engrossed in House), 106th Cong., 1st sess.,
H.R. 999.EH. (22 April 1999.), Online; available from THOMAS: Legislative Information on
the Internet: Legislation, Major Legislation, 106th: Marine Resources [accessed
3 May 2000].
An Online Journal: (Turabian 1996, 210)
Walt, Vivienne. "Land War in Zimbabwe." Salon News
(1 May 2000). Online.
Available from http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2000/05/01/zimbabwe/index.html?CP=SAL&DN=1
[accessed 3 May 2000].
1 Vivienne Walt, "Land War in Zimbabwe," Salon News (1
May 2000) [journal online]; available from http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2000/05/01/zimbabwe/index.html?CP=SAL&DN=1
[accessed 3 May 2000].
The following Web citations have additional examples: