UNION COUNTY COLLEGE KENNETH C. MACKAY LIBRARY
The University of Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition (2010) is a thousand page book geared primarily to professional writers.
Kate Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th Edition (2013) focuses on providing guidelines for student papers.
UCC Libraries Citation Guide
A Few Basic Rules in Using the Turabian Style
Here are a few basic rules to guide you in citing the publications used for your research paper. To create such a list you will have to have full citations prepared for each source used. These citations should be prepared as you use each source so that you do not have to retrace the steps followed in researching your paper.
The Bibliography (simply) lists the sources used in writing the (research) paper." (Turabian 1996, 165). When using a bibliography, you will have to document any quotes or ideas you use with either footnotes or endnotes.
credit anything you should document at the bottom of each page. (See (Turabian 1996, 118, 254-255)).
Endnotes credit anything you should document at the end of your research paper. (See (Turabian 1996, 13, 118, 277)).
The format of either of these is the same and both are represented when we discuss Notes in the Turabian style. These are also described by "N" in the "Sample Entries " listed later in this booklet.
The Reference List is a list of works cited in the text of the research paper using the parenthetical or author-date reference system. The format of the Reference List is the same as for a Bibliography.
Placement of the Bibliography:
Arrangement of the Bibliography:
Italics and quotation marks for titles follow a general rule: "italicize the titles of whole published works and put the titles of parts of these works in quotation marks .Italicize the titles of books, pamphlets, bulletins, periodicals (magazines, journals, newspapers), and long poems (such as Paradise Lost) .(W)ords that are italicized may be underlined if italics are not available on the computer system or typewriter being used." (Turabian 1996, 68)
You should use quotation marks for the titles of works published within larger works. Such titles include the names of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, chapters of books, individual episodes of television and radio programs, and short musical compositions (e.g. songs). Quotation marks should also be used for unpublished works, such as lectures and speeches. If a publisher has marked a work, " it should be treated as published; that is, the title should be italicized wherever it appears." (Turabian 1996, 68)
Be sure to use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the title ends in a question mark, an exclamation point, or a dash. Also include other punctuation only if it is part of the title.
Sample Entries in the Turabian Style
B= Entry for a Bibliography
N=Entry for a Note
B and N designations are for informational purposes,
Titles of books and names of magazines are either written in italics or they are underlined. In the samples below, the italicized method is used. But it would be equally appropriate to continue with regular type and underline.
Example using italics:
the Cosmos. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Example using underline:
In a footnote or endnote, the first line starts with an indent and then the number of the footnote is printed. Numbers should be consecutive throughout the paper.
Example for footnote indentation:
Bibliographic entries and footnotes are always single spaced; BUT, you double space BETWEEN entries on the same page.
Various ExamplesA book by a single author: (Turabian 1996, 187)
North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
the Cosmos. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
1John North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric
An edited book: (Turabian 1996, 190)
Niiya, Brian, ed. Japanese American History: An A-to-Z
A book with more than one author or editor: (Turabian 1996, 188-191)
Winter, Jay, and Blaine Baggett. The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th
Century. New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996.
(New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996), 54.
A book with no author: (Turabian 1996, 189)
A book with an Institution, Association or the Like as author:
Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ Researcher: January December, 1996.
An article in an encyclopedia or a well-known reference book:
"Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes or parenthetical references the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified." (Turabian 1996, 204) For my annotated bibliographies, I specifically request that you cite one encyclopedia and list it as a distinct category.
Unsigned article: (Turabian 1996, 204)
Signed article: (Turabian 1996, 204)
An article in or the chapter of a book: (Turabian 1996, 196)
Edition other than the first: (Turabian 1996, 193)
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers,Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
1Kate L. Turabian. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 193
A journal or magazine article:
Because they are treated differently in the Turabian style, we must first understand what is a journal and what is a magazine.
A journal is a periodical which generally contains articles of a professional or scholarly nature and is dedicated to a specific subject matter.
A magazine is a periodical which contains information of a popular and general nature, is usually varied in subject matter and its target audience is often the public or a large segment of the public audience.
Article in a journal: (Turabian 1996, 202)
Article in a magazine: (Turabian 1996, 203)
A newspaper article: (Turabian 1996; 144-146, 204-205)
"News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography or reference list. If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a note or a parenthetical reference in the text is sufficient " (Turabian 1996, 204)
If you are citing an article from a Sunday edition, it is necessary to give the "section number (or letter), page number, and edition letter (often in uppercase)" (Turabian 1996, 144-145).
"If the name of the city is the same as that of a better-known city, add the city before the newspaper title and italicize or underline both. If the city is not widely known (or may be confused with a better known city), give the state or province in parentheses ." (Turabian 1996, 145)
For foreign cities, give the name of the city in parentheses after the title of the newspaper.
For well-known newspapers, the city of publication need not be included.
"An initial the in English language newspaper titles is omitted, but its equivalent in a foreign language is retained " (Turabian 1996, 145)
Book Review in a Journal: (Turabian 1996, 205)
Videorecordings: (Turabian 1996, 211)
An Article on CD-ROM: (Turabian 1996, 210)
(CD-ROM) "are in relatively fixed form, although they may be updated periodically; (online sources) may be continually revised, making the precise date of access especially important .(as well as any) identifying numbers or pathway needed for access to the material". (Turabian 1996, 158).
Sellman, James Clyde. "Abolitionism in the United States." Africana Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 1993-1999.
1James Clyde Sellman, "Abolitionism in the United States," Africana Encarta [CD-ROM] (Microsoft, 1993-1999).
Electronic Documents: (Turabian 1996; 158-159, 210)
An Internet Posting: (Turabian 1996, 210)
An Article from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996, 210)
A Government Document from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996; 210, 214-238)
An Online Journal: (Turabian 1996, 210)
The following Web citations have additional examples: