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UNION COUNTY COLLEGE KENNETH C. MACKAY LIBRARY

UCC Libraries Citation Guide
Documenting Sources Using Turabian

prepared by Lisa Bruckman and Susan Bissett
September 2000

A Few Basic Rules in Using the Turabian Style

Here are a few basic rules to guide you in citing the publications used for your research paper. To create such a list you will have to have full citations prepared for each source used. These citations should be prepared as you use each source so that you do not have to retrace the steps followed in researching your paper.

The Bibliography (simply) lists the sources used in writing the (research) paper." (Turabian 1996, 165). When using a bibliography, you will have to document any quotes or ideas you use with either footnotes or endnotes.

Notes: 
Footnotes
credit anything you should document at the bottom of each page. (See (Turabian 1996, 118, 254-255)).

Endnotes credit anything you should document at the end of your research paper. (See (Turabian 1996, 13, 118, 277)).

The format of either of these is the same and both are represented when we discuss Notes in the Turabian style. These are also described by "N" in the "Sample Entries…" listed later in this booklet.

The Reference List is a list of works cited in the text of the research paper using the parenthetical or author-date reference system.  The format of the Reference List is the same as for a Bibliography.

Parenthetical References in the Author-Date System.  In the parenthetical or author-date reference system . . . , citations in running text consist of two basic elements - authors' names and dates of publication - usually in parentheses (for example, Turabian 1996, 175)).  The full bibliographic details for these cited works are then given in the Reference list  (Turabian 1996, 175).

Placement of the Bibliography:

"The bibliography …is the last part of the paper (except in those rare instances where a paper carries an index, like in a book)." (Turabian 1996, 13)

Arrangement of the Bibliography:

Bibliographies are arranged with the authors’ names cited alphabetically: "All works by the same author are arranged first by date, then alphabetically by title." (Turabian 1996, 279) The Bibliography gives the works cited in full bibliographic detail (author, title, volume, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication)

Plagiarism:

Endnotes or footnotes and parenthetical references have four basic uses: (1) to give the source for statements in your text – "specific facts or opinions as well as exact quotations; …(2) to make cross-references;…(3) to provide a place for material …(you think) worthwhile to include but that might interrupt the flow of thought if introduced into the text;…" (4) to give credit for help or aid in producing a portion of the paper (Turabian 1996, 118) If you fail to give credit to some thought or passage you borrowed from the text of one of your sources, you are committing plagiarism which is a serious and punishable error.

Documentation:

When citing the title of a published work, take the title from the title page not from the cover or from a headline at the top of the page. (The title page of a book is the page directly before the book begins. The title is given on the front and copyright information on the back.) Do not use any unusual typographic characteristics, such as special capitalization or the lowercasing of all letters.

Capitalization:

"In giving titles of published works in notes or bibliography, the spelling of the original should be retained but capitalization and punctuation may be altered to conform to the style used in the paper….In the humanities …, it is customary to capitalize titles headline style(:)….capitalize the first and last words and all other words except …" (Turabian 1996, 65)

bulletArticles (a, an, the as in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East)
bulletPrepositions (e.g. against, between, in, of, to as in Egypt: Land of the Pharaohs)
bulletCoordinating conjunctions (and , but, for, nor, or, so, yet as in "Tradition and Major Projects of the Fourteenth Century")
bulletThe to in infinitives (as in How to Err)

Punctuation:

Italics and quotation marks for titles follow a general rule: "italicize the titles of whole published works and … put the titles of parts of these works in quotation marks….Italicize the titles of books, pamphlets, bulletins, periodicals (magazines, journals, newspapers), and long poems (such as Paradise Lost)….(W)ords that are italicized …may be underlined if italics are not available on the computer system or typewriter being used." (Turabian 1996, 68)

You should use quotation marks for the titles of works published within larger works. Such titles include the names of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, chapters of books, individual episodes of television and radio programs, and short musical compositions (e.g. songs). Quotation marks should also be used for unpublished works, such as lectures and speeches. If a publisher has marked a work, " it should be treated as published; that is, the title should be italicized wherever it appears." (Turabian 1996, 68)

Be sure to use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the title ends in a question mark, an exclamation point, or a dash. Also include other punctuation only if it is part of the title.

Sample Entries in the Turabian Style

B= Entry for a Bibliography

N=Entry for a Note

B and N designations are for informational purposes,
they are not part of the footnote or bibliographic entries.
do not copy B or N

Titles of books and names of magazines are either written in italics or they are underlined.  In the samples below, the italicized method is used.  But it would be equally appropriate to continue with regular type and underline. [Dr. Damerow requests that you use the underline method.]

    Example using italics:
North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
     the Cosmos.
New York: The Free Press, 1996.

    Example using underline:
North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
     t
he Cosmos. New York: The Free Press, 1996.


It is also customary to indent the second line of a bibliographical entry five spaces.

In a footnote or endnote, the first line starts with an indent and then the number of the footnote is printed.  Numbers should  be consecutive throughout the paper.

    Example for footnote indentation:
     
1John North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric
Man and the Cosmos
(New York: The Free Press, 1996), 54.

Bibliographic entries and footnotes are always single spaced; BUT, you double space BETWEEN entries on the same page.

Various Examples

A book by a single author: (Turabian 1996, 187)

Bibliography

  North, John. Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and
       the Cosmos.
New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Note

   1John North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric
Man and the Cosmos
(New York: The Free Press, 1996), 54.

An edited book: (Turabian 1996, 190)

Bibliography

  Niiya, Brian, ed. Japanese American History: An A-to-Z
      Reference from 1868 to Present.
New York: Facts on File, 1993..

Note

    1Brian Niiya, ed., Japanese American History: An A-to-Z Reference from 1868 to Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993), 54.

A book with more than one author or editor: (Turabian 1996, 188-191)

Bibliography

Winter, Jay, and Blaine Baggett. The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th
       
Century.
New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996.

Note

     1Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett, The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th        Century (New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996), 54.

A book with no author: (Turabian 1996, 189)

Bibliography

 Dictionary of American History. New York: Charles
      Scribner’s Sons, 1976.

Note

   1Dictionary of American History (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), 54-55.

A book with an Institution, Association or the Like as author:
                                                                   
(Turabian 1996, 190)

Bibliography

  Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ Researcher: January – December, 1996.
     
Washington, D.C.:  Congressional Quarterly, Inc.1996.

Note

    1Congressional Quarterly Inc. The CQ Researcher: January-December (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1996), 54.

An article in an encyclopedia or a well-known reference book:

"Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes or parenthetical references the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified." (Turabian 1996, 204)  For my annotated bibliographies, I specifically request that you cite one encyclopedia and list it as a distinct category.

Unsigned article: (Turabian 1996, 204)

Note

  1New Encyclopedia Britannica, Micropaedia,15th ed., s.v. "Santeria."

Signed article: (Turabian 1996, 204)

Note

  1Karl-Dietrich Gundermann, "Light" in New Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th ed.

An article in or the chapter of a book: (Turabian 1996, 196)

Bibliography

  Bottero, Jean. "Akkadian Literature: An Overview." In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack M. Sassson, 2293-2303. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995.

Note

  1Jean Bottero, "Akkadian Literature: An Overview," in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack M. Sasson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 2293-2303.

Edition other than the first: (Turabian 1996, 193)

Bibliography

 Turabian, Kate L. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers,Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Note

  1Kate L. Turabian. A Manual of Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 193

A journal or magazine article:

Because they are treated differently in the Turabian style, we must first understand what is a journal and what is a magazine.

A journal is a periodical which generally contains articles of a professional or scholarly nature and is dedicated to a specific subject matter.

A magazine is a periodical which contains information of a popular and general nature, is usually varied in subject matter and its target audience is often the public or a large segment of the public audience.

Article in a journal: (Turabian 1996, 202)

Bibliography

  Fleming, Thomas. "George Washington, Spymaster." American Heritage. Vol. 51 , No. 1 (February-March, 2000), 45-51.

Note

     1Thomas Fleming, "George Washington, Spymaster," American Heritage. Vol. 51, No. 1 (February-March, 2000), 45.

Article in a magazine: (Turabian 1996, 203)

Bibliography

 Strobel, Warren P. "A Glimpse of Cyberwarfare: Governments Ready Information-age Tricks to Use against their Adversaries." U.S. News and World Report (13 March 2000), 32-33.

Note

  1Warren P. Strobel, "A Glimpse of Cyberwarfare: Governments Ready Information-age Tricks to Use against their Adversaries," U.S. News and World Report (13 March 2000), 32.

A newspaper article: (Turabian 1996; 144-146, 204-205)

"News items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography or reference list. If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a note or a parenthetical reference in the text is sufficient…" (Turabian 1996, 204)

Note  

1 Bridgewater Courier News (New Jersey), 20 January 2000.

If you are citing an article from a Sunday edition, it is necessary to give the "section number (or letter), page number, and edition letter (often in uppercase)" (Turabian 1996, 144-145).

Note

  1Douglas Jehl, "As Oil Prices Explode, What’s Next? Voters?," New York Times, 19 March 2000, sec. 4, p.1, 3.

"If the name of the city is the same as that of a better-known city, add the city before the newspaper title and italicize or underline both. If the city is not widely known… (or may be confused with a better known city),… give the state or province in parentheses…." (Turabian 1996, 145)

(For an example, see the Bridgewater Courier News above.)

For foreign cities, give the name of the city in parentheses after the title of the newspaper.

Times (London)

But Frankfurter Zeitung

For well-known newspapers, the city of publication need not be included.

Wall Street Journal

"An initial the in English language newspaper titles is omitted, but its equivalent in a foreign language is retained…" (Turabian 1996, 145)

For example, New York Times but Le Monde (Paris).

Book Review in a Journal: (Turabian 1996, 205)

Bibliography

  Ware, Susan. Review of ‘To Do & To Be’: Portraits of Four Women Activists, 1893-1986, by Ann Schofield. Labor History 41 (February 2000): 99-100.

Note  

1 Susan Ware, review of ‘To Do & To Be’: Portraits of Four Women Activists, 1896-1986, by Ann Schofield, Labor History 41 (February 2000): 99-100.

Videorecordings: (Turabian 1996, 211)

Bibliography  

Sutherland, David , prod., and Nancy Sutherland, co-prod. The American Experience: George Washington-The Man Who Wouldn’t Be King. 60 min. PBS Video, 1992. Videocassette.

Note  

1.The American Experience: George Washington-The Man Who Wouldn’t Be King, prod. by David Sutherland and co-prod. by Nancy Sutherland, 60 min., PBS Video, 1992, videocassette.

An Article on CD-ROM: (Turabian 1996, 210)

(CD-ROM) "are in relatively fixed form, although they may be updated periodically; …(online sources) may be continually revised, making the precise date of access especially important ….(as well as any) identifying numbers or pathway needed for access to the material". (Turabian 1996, 158).

Bibliography 

Sellman, James Clyde. "Abolitionism in the United States." Africana Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 1993-1999.

Note

  1James Clyde Sellman, "Abolitionism in the United States," Africana Encarta [CD-ROM] (Microsoft, 1993-1999).

Electronic Documents: (Turabian 1996; 158-159, 210)

 

An Internet Posting: (Turabian 1996, 210)

Bibliography  

 Greenhalgh, Michael. The ‘Palace’ of Diocletian at Split: A Unique Structure from the Later Roman Empire. (15 Sept 1999). Online. Available from http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Experimental/split/split1.html [accessed 4 May 2000]

Note  

1 Michael Greenhalgh, The ‘Palace’ of Diocletian At Split: A Unique Structure from the Later Roman Empire (15 Sept 1999) Online; available from http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Experimental/split/split1.html [accessed 4 May 2000]

An Article from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996, 210)

Bibliography

  Mosse, George L. "Shell-shock as a Social Disease." Journal of Contemporary History 35, no.1 (January 2000): 101-108. Database online. Available from Periodical Abtracts, GJCH ISBN: 0022-0094.

Note

1 George L. Mosse, "Shell-shock as a Social Disease," Journal of Contemporary History 35, no.1 (January 2000): 101-108 (database online); available from Periodical Abstracts, GJCH ISBN: 0022-0094.

A Government Document from an Online Database: (Turabian 1996; 210, 214-238)

Bibliography

  U.S. Congress. House. Beaches Environmental Awareness, Cleanup, and Health Act of 1999 (Engrossed in House). 106th Cong., 1st sess., H.R.999. EH. (22 April 1999.) Online. Available from THOMAS: Legislative Information on the Internet: Legislation, Major Legislation, 106th:Marine Resources [accessed 3 May 2000].

Note

1U.S. Congress, House; Beaches Environmental Awareness, Cleanup, and Health Act of 1999 (Engrossed in House), 106th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 999.EH. (22 April 1999.), Online; available from THOMAS: Legislative Information on the Internet: Legislation, Major Legislation, 106th: Marine Resources [accessed 3 May 2000].

An Online Journal: (Turabian 1996, 210)

Bibliography 

Walt, Vivienne. "Land War in Zimbabwe." Salon News (1 May 2000). Online. Available from http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2000/05/01/zimbabwe/index.html?CP=SAL&DN=1 [accessed 3 May 2000].

Note 

1 Vivienne Walt, "Land War in Zimbabwe," Salon News (1 May 2000) [journal online]; available from http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2000/05/01/zimbabwe/index.html?CP=SAL&DN=1 [accessed 3 May 2000].

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The following Web citations have additional examples:  
 http://www.lib.usm.edu/~instruct/guides/turabian.html

 http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/guides/turabiangd.html