Using Turabian or Chicago
A sample bibliography in the style of Kate Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 6th ed, 1996. Updated and compared with Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. 2003.
Susan J. C. Bissett 2005
You must cite your sources!
Documentation is needed for
Documentation is key to building a bibliography.
1. Direct Quotes
Lincoln appeals to the emotions of his audience during his first inaugural address:
"The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."1
1.Abraham Lincoln, “First Inaugural Address, 1861,” ed. K. W. Jennison, The Essential Lincoln, New
York: Franklin Watts, 1971, 157-169.
Direct QuotationIt is best to use a direct quotation whenever…
• The original text uses official, legal, or scientific terminology,
• The original language is especially expressive, beautiful, or otherwise significant,
• It is necessary to present someone’s exact words without any interpretation or change,
• You wish first to present an author’s exact words, then to give your interpretation of those words.
It’s not exactly what was said, but it still needs to be cited!
Lincoln’s first inaugural address tugs at the heartstrings of his audience. He appeals to the people of North and South to remember their treasured shared heritage of constitutional government, so that the nation could continue united, despite ongoing disagreements. 2
Abraham Lincoln, “First Inaugural Address,
1861,” ed. K. W. Jennison, The Essential Lincoln,
ParaphrasingParaphrasing gives you the opportunity to explain the original source by…
The first volume of Carl Sandburg’s biography of Abraham Lincoln covers
his childhood, youth, and early adult years.3
3. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie
Years and the War Years,
(New York: Harcourt
Why use Turabian?
• Turabian is a student’s version of the Chicago Manual of Style.
• Turabian (or Chicago) is the preferred citation style for history, political science, or religion. It can also used in literature, art and library science.
• Turabian and Chicago styles are reviewed and brought up to date periodically.
Whatever happened to Parenthetical References and Works Cited?
Although the Turabian Manual does have a parenthetical reference style, the footnote-bibliography style is required at UCC. So that’s what you’ll see here…
What’s a Bibliography?
• A bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the information sources used to research a topic.
• For each source, full bibliographic detail is listed. This includes author, title, volume,place of publication, publisher, year of publication, page numbers, etc.
• A bibliography is found at the end of a research paper. This is usually not annotated.
• Annotatedbibliographies contain a brief description of each source following the bibliographic entry.
Barclay, Linwood. “Science Gives Aphrodite a Pain in the Butt.”
Toronto Star 21 September
Butler, Judith. Antigone’s Claim. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Lefkowitz, Mary R. Greek gods, human lives: what we can learn
from myths. New Haven,
Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant, comps. Women’s Life in Greece and
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. s.v. “Morpheus.”
Schein, Seth L. “Verbal Adjectives in Sophocles: Necessity and
Bibliography entriesare listed in alphabetical order.
Entries are single spaced, with one space between entries. Format your entries with aHANGING INDENT.
Aperiod separates each complete citation element.
Sample Annotated Bibliography Entry
Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant, comps. Women’s Life in
Greece and Rome: A
In anannotated bibliography, each bibliography entry is followed by a paragraph describing the contents of the material sited.
The entry should have ahanging indent.
The annotation may have a paragraph indent.
The list is in alphabetical order by the first element of each bibliography entry.
Capitalize the first and last words of titles, and all other words in the title, except
Italicize OR Underline:
Titles of whole published works (books, journals, newspapers, long poems, etc. Dr. Damerow prefers underlining
Use “Quotation Marks”:
Titles of shorter works, chapters of books, articles in a magazine; also unpublished works.
What’s a Footnote?
Sample Footnotes on a Page
[Heading of the Paper]
Suzy Smartstudent History XYZ
[Text on Page of Paper]
It was conventionally understood in the ancient world that women were to be silent in public places. Valerius Maximus refers scathingly to “those women whom neither the condition of their nature nor the cloak of modesty could keep silent in the Forum or the courts.23 Deutero-Paul advised churches to “suffer not a woman to teach…but to be in silence.”24 Argumentativeness in a woman was associated with “low morals.”25
23. Valerius Maximus, “Memorable Deeds and Sayings,” comps. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant, Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation, (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992),151.
24. 1 Tim. 2:12, (King James Version).
25. Maximus, 152.
Not FOOTNOTES!! ANYTHING but footnotes!!
Actually, footnotes areeasy to make on a computer.
Making footnotes on the computer
File Edit View Insert Format Tools Table Window Help
1. Place the cursor in the place in your text where a footnote should go.
2. Click Insert on the toolbar.
3. Then click Reference and select Footnote.
4. A box will pop up, and you can type the information (us the N forms).
5. The computer will automatically insert a superscript numeral at the point where the footnote is needed, and will number each footnote at the bottom of the page.
6. If you need to add additional footnotes in the middle of a paragraph, the computer will automatically renumber all the footnotes in your document.