Turabian Format

Home Up Guidelines Examples


Bibliographies according to the Turabian Format
or the Chicago Manual of Style

The University of Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition (2010) is a thousand page book geared primarily to professional writers.

Kate Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th Edition (2013) focuses on providing guidelines for student papers.


All of my courses require that the Turabian format, which is an abbreviated version of the University of Chicago Manual of Style,  be used when doing term papers and bibliographies. There are other formats for doing bibliographies, such as the MLA style, but Turabian is the preferred format in most political science and history courses.

Turabian allows for a number of different ways of doing things.  In my courses, I would like my students to use footnotes, rather than parenthetical references, and a Bibliography, rather than a Reference List.  You can either underline or italicize, the title of books and magazines.  Italicizing  makes it easier to indent when using a word processor.  Whichever form you use, please be consistent.

Given the current advanced state of most word processing programs, it is easy to footnote but, if you are still using an old fashioned typewriter, endnotes are also acceptable.

Please note that the Turabian format requires single spacing within all bibliographic entries (or footnotes) and a double space between bibliographic entries (or footnotes). Footnotes must be numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

As you do your research, it is advisable to keep track of the sources researched and used. It is wise to keep a stack of index cards with your full citations. If you browse the World Wide Web, be sure to keep track of the URLs and the date the site was accessed.  You might want to paste that information into a WORD file and save it on your hard drive or disk.  If you do not jot down the necessary bibliographic information, you may discover that crucial items are missing when you write your paper and start to compile the bibliography. 

The Internet is being used increasingly to do research.  You must give both a traditional citation, the URL location, and the date you accessed the WEB site..  Please be especially careful when citing the World Wide Web and other Internet sources.  I have prepared a separate WEB page dealing with WEB Citations.

The Kenneth C. MacKay Library of Union County College has developed a  Manual on how to use the Turabian format.  A hard copy of the full text of the UCC Library pamphlet on using the Turabian style is available at the UCC Library and can be printed out from the Library's WEB page at:  http://www.ucc.edu/NR/rdonlyres/A9F0CE7B-C355-4966-9628-D5F2248A355A/0/Turabian.pdf.    

A tutorial is also available at: http://www.ucc.edu/NR/rdonlyres/40ADE7A2-8730-4675-8508-0E3B98A18956/0/DocumentingSourcesTurabian.pdf

With permission of the authors, I have also summarized and edited parts these materials in the two WEB pages nested below this one entitled Guidelines and Examples.


Dr. Harold Damerow
Professor of Government and History
Union County College
Cranford, NJ
Created December 21, 2000
Last Updated November 30, 2006



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