What is Sociology?
Sociology the scientific study of human interaction and the products of such interaction
Components of sociology
common sense knowledge
sociology as a science which is superior to common sense knowledge
the main focus of sociology group
the ultimate questions of sociology: how and why human beings act the way they do?
Macro-sociology and micro-sociology
The Founding Fathers of Sociology
Sociology in America
Charles H. Cooley
George H. Mead
SOCIOLOGY THREE DOMINANT THEORIES
What is theory?
Concepts, statements, relationships between factors
Pure and applied science
The Functionalist Theory
Rooted in the writings of Spencer, Durkheim, Parsons and Merton
The key questions: whether each different part contributes to the smooth functioning of the whole?
Sees society as a biological organism
Society characterized by cooperation, consensus, and balance
The various parts of society are interdependent and functionally related.
Stress harmony and stability having a conservative bias?
Rooted in the work of Marx and Weber and other critics of the 19th century
The key questions: who benefits what and why?
Sees society as constantly changing in response to social inequality and social conflict
Conflict is beneficial to society
Too much on conflict and change but too little on what produces stability
The Interactionalist Perspective
The key questions: how do people make sense of the world in which they participate?
Seeks to understand social life and human behavior from the standpoint of the individuals involved in day-to-day interaction
Symbolic Interactionalist Approach
Human beings can create symbols and interpret the meanings.
The definition of situation has consequences and affects social interaction.
Sociology and other Social Sciences:
What is Methodology?
A system of rules, principles, and procedures that guide scientific investigation
The scientific approach
The Research Process- a sequence of steps that is followed when designing and carrying out a research project
Define the problem
Review previous literature
Develop hypothesis a testable statement about the relationship between two more variables
Determine the research design
Define the sample and collect data
Analyze the data and draw conclusion
Report the results